Guangzhou and Shenzhen ports are catalysts for provincial port integration
广东港口整合新进展:组建广州港、深圳港两大集团
SOURCE: Yicai, Shenzhen Economic Daily |UPDATED: 2018-11-20Visit Statistics:



Shekou Port / photo by Shenzhen Economic Daily

A July document from Guangdong Communication and Transportation Department indicates Guangdong will use the Guangzhou and Shenzhen port groups as entities to integrate the state-owned port assets of 14 coastal cities and Foshan city.

After years of development and construction, Guangdong province has basically formed a port program with five major coastal ports, including those of Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou and Zhanjiang, as well as two major inland ports, in Foshan and Zhaoqing. Under the mode of "one port in one city," however, regional ports have faced problems such as homogeneous competition and uneven allocation of public resources. The result is large but weak ports, leading to tardy development of modern port logistics and modern shipping service.

Professor Hu Gang from the School of Public Administration of Jinan University, and also chairman of the South China City Research Association, said that using the two port industry leaders as the main bodies for integration is beneficial because Shenzhen port plays an irreplaceable role in the foreign trade of Guangdong, and cannot be integrated into Guangzhou port. But the trend of port integration is irreversible, so it is the best choice to integrate through the two primary port groups.

As for how to integrate these ports, Prof. Hu said the government will play a guiding role, while the market will play a leading role, because when the market is fully competitive, there will be an alliance between ports to improve efficiency. After port integration, Guangzhou port and Shenzhen port can overcome disorderly and repeated competition and instead maintain healthy competition.

A port pattern with three pillar ports of Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong will likely be established in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area."Hong Kong has a unique, first-mover advantage, Guangzhou has the advantage of traditional shipping base and is close to the economic hinterland, and Shenzhen has the advantage of innovation."said Huang Bo, deputy director of Guangzhou Port Authority,"If we form a deep cooperation, we can have a stronger vitality in the global port and shipping industry."

Editor: Lindsay

    广东省交通运输厅在关于政协广东省委员会十二届一次会议第20180201号提案答复的函中明确提出,广东将以广州港集团、深圳港口集团(深圳市内部整合组建)为两大主体,分区域整合沿海14市及佛山市范围内的省属、市属国有港口资产。

  暨南大学公共管理学院教授、华南城市研究会会长胡刚表示,“双龙头”的思路符合广东省港口的实际情况,深圳港发展快、潜力大,尤其是集装箱吞吐量占据的分量很重,充分说明其在外贸中的地位,如果整合进广州港显然不合理,但港口整合趋势不可逆,所以以两大主体来推动是最优选择。

  经过多年的发展建设,广东省基本形成了以广州港、深圳港、珠海港、汕头港、湛江港五大沿海主要港口和佛山港、肇庆港两大内河主要港口为龙头,辐射华南、西南,面向全球的港口发展格局。

  截至2017年底,全省港口共有生产性泊位2715个,其中万吨级以上泊位309个,约占全国1/8,居全国第二。2017年全省港口完成货物吞吐量19.8亿吨,居全国第二,集装箱吞吐量完成6627万TEU(标准箱),居全国第一。
  但在“一城一港”的建设模式下,区域港口也出现了同质化竞争激烈、公共资源配置不优等问题,导致港口大而不强,现代港口物流、现代航运服务业发展较为缓慢。

  随着全国各地港口整合的加快,自去年开始,广东省港口整合也加速推进。今年5月,《建设广州国际航运中心三年行动计划(2018~2020年)》明确提出,以广州港集团为平台,通过增资扩股、收购等方式加快港口资源整合,打造世界级枢纽港区。

  广东省交通运输厅在上述函件中也表示,目前正在结合广州市与珠海、佛山、东莞、中山等市前期协商工作情况,对《广东省港口资源整合方案》作进一步优化和完善后尽快上报广东省政府。

  上述函件还首次提出,将以深圳市内部整合组建深圳港口集团的方式来推进整合。事实上,仅深圳的港口整合就颇为艰难。深圳港口众多,且涉及央企、国企、港资等各方资本与多家上市公司。

  胡刚认为,整合方案作为政府指引是必要的,但是市场不一定完全按照政府的规划去做,以绝对行政化的手段来整合港口也不现实。

  “其实不用太担心,市场充分竞争下来后,港口之间就会形成联合,提高效率,政府只能起到引导作用,如果政策的指向性太明显反而不利于市场操作。”胡刚说。

  可以预见的是,未来,在粤港澳大湾区内必然会形成广深港三足鼎立的港口航运格局,广深正在追赶香港。不过在胡刚看来,香港作为国际金融中心,货运量的下降并不影响其国际地位和进出口功能的发挥,以高端服务业为主导的产业格局也不需要绝对的货运量来支撑。

  “但港口整合对广深意义重大,整合以后,广州跟深圳可以克服无序竞争、重复竞争,同时‘双龙头’又能保持竞争,这对促进港口发展十分必要。”胡刚说。

  广州市港务局副局长黄波此前在接受第一财经记者采访时也曾表示,在提升整个粤港澳大湾区港口群的国际地位上,希望广深港三地能够形成合力。“香港有得天独厚的先发优势,广州有传统航运基础和紧邻经济发展腹地的优势,深圳有创新优势,大家如果能够形成深度合作,就可以在全球的港口航运界焕发出更强大的生命力。”